Menopause

What is menopause?

Menopause is the end of female fertility, occurring 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual period.

For most women, the onset of menopause known as perimenopause or transitional menopause begins in their late 30s or early 40s, when their ovaries start producing less of the reproductive hormones, estrogen and progesterone. On average, naturally occurring menopause usually happens by age 52, although vasomotor symptoms can start much earlier.

Premature menopause can occur at any age as the result of surgery. A total hysterectomy, which is the removal of a woman’s uterus and ovaries, or oophorectomy, the surgical removal of the ovaries, can cause menopause without any transitional phase. This sudden onset typically places a higher burden of symptoms on women with surgically induced menopause.

What are the symptoms of menopause?

The most common symptoms of menopause include:

  • Hot flashes
  • Night sweats
  • Sleep problems
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Joint pain
  • Dry skin
  • Thinning hair
  • Mood changes
  • Weight gain and slowed metabolism

Over 10 million women in the U.S., approximately two-thirds of women aged 50-65, experience hot flashes due to naturally occurring menopause. Of these, roughly half have symptoms severe enough to seek medical treatment. Hot flashes can dramatically impact the quality of life for menopausal and perimenopausal women, and may contribute to other symptoms such as sleep problems and mood changes.

What are the available treatment options for menopause?

While there is no “cure” for menopause, there are treatments available for the symptoms of menopause. For those with moderate and severe hot flashes, there are two FDA-approved medications: hormone therapy and a low-dose version of the generic anti-depressant paroxetine.

MenoGeniX is committed to developing MNGX-100 to provide a potential alternative for women with either natural or surgical menopause suffering from moderate and severe hot flashes and other vasomotor symptoms.

How is MNGX-100 different?

MNGX-100 contains an analog of a naturally occurring human protein called G-CSF, also known as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. G-CSF is best known for its ability to stimulate the production of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell. MenoGeniX believes that G-CSF is acting on the hypothalamus, the body’s thermostat, to counteract the effect of proinflammatory cytokines that are often elevated in individuals experiencing menopausal symptoms. MenoGeniX’s initial clinical trial results suggest that MNGX-100 will potentially be well-tolerated and may potentially lead to a sustained reduction in hot flash frequency and severity.